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Ecological Model

Healthy Campus 2020 explores these questions by emphasizing an ecological approach to improve student, faculty, and staff health. An ecological approach focuses on both population-level and individual-level determinants of health and interventions. It considers issues that are community-based and not just individually focused (National Association of Student Personnel Administrators [NASPA], 2004, p. 3). Health is determined by influences at multiple levels (e.g., public policy, community, institutional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal factors) (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler & Glanz, 1988, p. 355). Campus ecology provides a multifaceted view of the connections among health, learning, productivity, and campus structure.

Campus ecology identifies environmental factors and influences, which interact and affect individual behavior. These factors may be the physical setting or place, the human aggregate or characteristics of the people, organizational and social climate, and/or characteristics of the surrounding community. (NASPA, 2004, p. 7)

Because significant and dynamic interrelationships exist among these different levels of health determinants, interventions are most likely to be effective when they address determinants at all levels. Historically, the health field has focused on individual-level health determinants and interventions. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008, para. 18)

In the ecological model health status and behavior are the outcomes of interest (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler & Glanz, 1988, p. 355) and viewed as being determined by the following:

Ecological Approach
(McLeroy, Steckler, Bibeau and Glanz, 1988)

Ecological Approach

References

McLeroy, K. R., Steckler, A. and Bibeau, D. (Eds.) (1988). The social ecology of health promotion interventions. Health Education Quarterly, 15(4):351-377. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://tamhsc.academia.edu/KennethMcLeroy/Papers/81901/An_Ecological_Perspective_on_Health_Promotion_Programs.

National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. (2004). Leadership of a healthy campus: an ecological approach to student success.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Secretary’s Advisory Committee. (2008, December 11). Phase I report: recommendations for the framework and format of healthy people 2020. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/hp2020/advisory/phasei/summary.htm.

Further Reading / Resources

Bronfrenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge: Harvard Press.

Hochman, S., Kernan, W. (2011) A social-ecological model for addressing stress on the college campus. Retrieved May 9, 2012, from http://health.columbia.edu/files/healthservices/alice_SocEcoStress_ACHA_2010.pdf.

Moses, K., Schoenfield, D., Swinford, P., Grizzell, J. (2011). Healthy campus: reintroducing the ecological model and collaboration for student learning outcomes (webinar). National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Health in Higher Education Knowledge Community.

National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and American College Personnel Association. (2004). Learning reconsidered: A campus-wide focus on the student experience. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators and the American College Personnel Association. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.myacpa.org/pub/documents/learningreconsidered.pdf.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2010). A new way to talk about the determinants of health. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/vpmessageguide20101029.pdf.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2011, November 15). Determinants of health. Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/DOHAbout.aspx.